1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece
2First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece
3Department of Experimental Medicine and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
4Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences and Aging Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
The prevalence of Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) which refers to the obstruction of large arteries of the body is estimated to be around 12-14% in the general population and increases up to 20% of those over 70 years old. It is of interest that 70-80% of affected individuals are asymptomatic and only a minority requires revascularisation or amputation. Major risk factors of PAD are smoking, physical inactivity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, diabetes, and, consequently, the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Since the early 1990s, studies revealed the association between PAD and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diet has long been investigated in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and its major risk factors, like dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, as well as the MetS. A recent systematic search of the literature based on 15 relevant observational studies that evaluated the direct effect of diet on CVD risk reported that the attributable risk of an unhealthy dietary pattern varies from 9 - 37%.